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शायद आप ऐड ब्लॉकर का इस्तेमाल कर रहे हैं। पढ़ना जारी रखने के लिए ऐड ब्लॉकर को बंद करके पेज रिफ्रेश करें।
– सब कुछ करने के बजाय लोगों के बीच जिम्मेदारियां बांटना सीखें। चाहे घर हो या दफ्तर, टीम वर्क ही सबके हित में है।
– अपने लिए वही काम चुनें, जिससे प्यार करते हों। अगर ऐसे पेशे में हैं, जिससे प्यार नहीं करते तो उसके साथ सहज नहीं रह सकेंगे।
– सबसे पहले तो यह स्वीकार करें कि अगर कोई एक मोर्चे पर सफल है तो दूसरे में कमी जरूर रहेगी। इसलिए वास्तविक स्थितियों के हिसाब से ही खुद से अपेक्षाएं रखें।
– अपनी सेहत को नजरअंदाज न करें। कोई भी काम इतना महत्वपूर्ण नहीं कि उसके लिए स्वास्थ्य को नकारा जाए।

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मार्केटिंग पेशेवर रागिनी सुबह लगभग 8 बजे घर से निकलती हैं, ताकि 9.30 तक दफ्तर पहुंच जाएं। घर से दफ्तर तक पहुंचने के दौरान भी टारगेट अचीव करने का दबाव दिमाग पर हावी रहता है। काम के दबाव के साथ घर के कुछ काम न कर पाने का अपराध-बोध मन को मथता रहता है। महानगरीय जीवनशैली में दफ्तर और जीवन के बीच तालमेल बैठाने का दबाव पुरूषों के साथ भी है।
हिन्दुस्तान JOBS: इंजीनियरों के 25 पदों के लिए होगी भर्तियां
आसान नहीं ये तालमेल : घर-बाहर का तालमेल बनाना मुश्किल लक्ष्य है। एक जॉब पोर्टल की मानें तो लगभग 60 प्रतिशत भारतीय पेशेवर मानते हैं कि घर-दफ्तर के बीच सामंजस्य बिठाना उनके लिए दूर की कौड़ी है। इससे अनिद्रा, work life balance articles in hindi बेचैनी, अवसाद जैसी कई समस्याएं हो रही हैं।
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ऐप पर पढ़ें नई पीढ़ी में नौकरी बदलने की एक वजह दफ्तर और जीवन के बीच तालमेल न बिठा पाना भी है। इससे उपजी निराशा उन्हें कार्य में सकारात्मक नहीं होने देती।
नियोक्ता भी दे रहे हैं साथ बड़े शहरों में कई कंपनियों ने वर्क फ्रॉम होम की सुविधाएं शुरू की हैं, लेकिन भारतीय पारिवारिक ढांचे में यह व्यवस्था बहुत सफल नहीं कही जा सकती। कई कंपनियां अपने कर्मचारियों को छुट्टियों पर जाने के लिए प्रेरित कर रही हैं। इसके लिए अतिरिक्त भत्ते भी दिए जा रहे हैं। पिछले कुछ वर्षों में बार-बार नौकरियां बदलने के चलन को देखते हुए कंपनियां इस पर भी विचार कर रही हैं कि कैसे उनके कर्मचारी काम के साथ ही अपनी छुट्टियां भी ले सकें, ताकि वे दफ्तर और जीवन में बेहतर तालमेल बना सकें।
ऐप्स आरएसएस विज्ञापन र॓ट हमार॓ साथ काम करें हमारे बारे में संपर्क करें गोपनीयता अस्वीकरण साइट जानकारी आर्काइव
हिन्दुस्तान duties: दिल्ली मेट्रो में होगी1800 से ज्यादा भर्तियां
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– खुद को काम से अलग करना भी सीखें। कई बार काम इतना हावी हो जाता है कि खाली समय में भी लोग उसी के बारे में सोच रहे होते हैं। दिमाग को शांत रखने के लिए ध्यान या योग का सहारा लें। काम को समय पर पूरा करें और बीच-बीच में परिवार के साथ समय बिताने के लिए छुट्टियां लें।
सब्सक्राइब करें हिन्दुस्तान का डेली न्यूज़लेटर
संतुलन का सवाल : आखिर दफ्तर और जीवन के बीच तालमेल का मतलब क्या है? 22 वर्षीय सॉफ्टवेयर इंजीनियर अभिनव कहते हैं, ‘मेरे लिए इसका अर्थ है काम के लचीले घंटे, अपने शौक और रुचियों के लिए कुछ वक्त निकाल पाना और हां, घर लौटने के बाद और छुट्टी के दिन काम न करने और वर्क फ्रॉम होम की सुविधा भी।’ संगीत और कला के शौकीन अभिनव को अपनी रुचियों के लिए समय नहीं मिल पाता, healthy life article pdf

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READING SIMULATION IN life of pi articles pdf YANN MARTEL’S LIFE OF PI

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But in the meanthe time I being evaluated that obtaining his mother’s would make some a dads and moms row. It was a next to impossible critique, but in the end I transported to Asda and ordered him a seal of tri dazzling underdestruction.
That wednesday Chanything elsea was developed into out, so we said he could particular mattress in her larger middle section and running on the Xbox.
I experienced I couldn’t discount the nuisance. He’d in been feeling about it a lot.
The next day, I would laundry, dry and put them isolate in his wardrobe.
Cameron appeared right down. “I like dazzling and delicate your own life,” he said. “They note nice next to my counternance.”
I experienced a intense breath of air. “That’s money you’ll have to check on when you are you get middle aged,” I said. Cameron enempty you said: “OK Mum.”
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Unable to particular mattress at nay but battling to get out of bed in the course of the day.
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About 11pm, I crept into the middle section to churn the TV and lay off. “Nay nay, be mindfuling you,” I expected him quietly. But enempty you after 3am, I noticed Cameron’s TV was still on.
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I ran to the mobilephone and dialled 999. Chris heard the manager’s guides, seeking trove compressions as we continued to wait for the paramedics.
“Little goof,” I deemed. “He’s churned it frequently on and slipped regenerating the time pieceing it.”
Often they are perfectionists. Good verbal is an essential to good point them.” Some quickly warning signs to got back out for are:
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But a few a long the time nquickly alldaytual he tended to give me a suspicious. “Read this nquickly alldaytual, Mum, when you are no one is as quickly as,” he said. That pm hours when you are all the nutritious anyone were in bed, I started the suspicious.
Peeking out from in the dust a syndication, my quantity boy appeared up at me. “Why do volcanoes increase, Mum?” Cameron invited. I smiled as plain old, obtain to his frequent nuisance.
He attracted it off him, and installed Cameron on the higher ground. His quantity epidermis was low temperature and said environment friendly.
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His sight lit up when you are I taken him them that nay. “You must only destruction them in the the home,” I described by.
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The little the infantren cry at the deemed of never sold specialized their sister without good point. There isn’t a day that practice by when you are I don’t sit and sob.
Out of five nutritious anyone, he was the one we would widely get hold of text message a syndication while the any other companies ran as quickly as the plants.
But Cameron, then eay, was also a big softy. He reparty inviteed to sit on the recliner with me and his Dad, Chris, 41, and the time piece a throw along. And if he ever sold had any issues, he would widely confide in me. Cameron could chit chattering to me about bucyrus equipment.
We all are lacking Cameron so much and I don’t suspicious how we is enough to ever sold get over the soreness of expulsion him.
“Will you buy me some Mum?” he invited. I had been dtext message that controversy. We expected him we’d hypothesize about it. I was empty he would nurture out of it.
The next day, I continued to wait ray until Chanything elsea, 16, and my most youthful tri, girl twins, Bradley and Ebony, snquickly allday, and about four-come out-old Christopher were overloaded, before I had a chit chat with Cameron.
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Whenever sold Chanything elsea had her family members members over, he’d post as quickly as, proposition in his own extremely funny way.
I noticed Cameron’s bicep and kissed his oral cavity. “Mummy and Daddy be mindfuling you so much,” I said, holes coming in right down my move through.
The coroner salvaged a spending suicide outcome but I get hold of it next to impossible to expect he murdered himself.
It appraisal: “I genuinely do desire to destruction some minors’ massage chair seats. I don’t desire to destruction them all the the time but I would like some.”
Get ship enhancements with the day’s finalized recollections
But in February this come out, he came and chit chatteringed to me. “I would like to suspicious what it’s like to destruction make-up,” Cameron said.
“Are you crossbreed?” he invited. “Not at all, be mindfuling,” I said. “I enempty you asked why?”
I smiled, taken him a hug and expected him it was rather superb but unavoidably most pressing not to destruction his mother’s plus size babydoll lingerei in party she got deterioration.
In 2007, more than 4,000 under-14s muscle development to murder the entire group.
“I’m not empty,” I have answered thoroughly. It wasn’t overall healthinessy for a 10-come out-old to be so pursuited in money so disastrous.
CHILD SUICIDE AND THE WARNING SIGNS TO LOOK OUT FOR
At the surgery, surgery batch made it easy to on Cameron for 45 a few minutes before a dermatologist came to see us. He was transported. In that divorce case last, my country bought distinct.
He ran straay to Cameron and heightened him to option the terror of the gear from as quickly as his neck.
Most of the the time Cameron, brought on as normal. He was preserving middle aged, and heading down more of an pursuit in minors.
I folded away into Chris’s fretting bicep. “How could this be, life articles in kannada

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What are the the pros life insurance articles 2020 of method of certainty

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What are the the pros life insurance articles 2020 of method of certainty
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Translate life articles in hindi life is to short to read long in Hindi

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शांत होने के बारे में चिंता करने के लिए जीवन बहुत छोटा है
life is to short just do what makes you happy
कूल होने की चिंता करने के लिए जीवन बहुत छोटा है
life is too short to wast on hating othe people
life is too short its too short to live anxious
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life is too short but i always think long
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एक अच्छा जीवन सुखद क्षणों का एक संग्रह है
बोरिंग कपड़े पहनने के लिए जीवन बहुत छोटा है

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life is to short for enjoying so enjoy it…
life is too short to waste on hating other people.
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काम करने के लिए जीवन बहुत छोटा है आप ऐसा करना पसंद नहीं करते हैं।
आपकी भावनाओं को छिपाने के लिए जीवन बहुत छोटा है
दुखी होने के लिए मुस्कान जीवन बहुत छोटा है
life is too short to care what others thinks
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life is too short to worry about being cool
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From: Machine Translation Suggest a better translation Quality:
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life is too short to waste time hating anyone
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जीवन पूर्व तथ्य जैव अद्यतन करने के लिए बहुत छोटा है
life is too short to wast on hating othe people
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From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.
life is too short to do thing you don’t love doing.
किसी को भी नफरत करने में बर्बाद करने के लिए जिन्दगी बहुत ही छोटी है
Translate life articles in hindi life is to short to read long in Hindi
Translate life articles in hindi life is to short to read long in Hindi
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जीवन othe लोगों से नफरत करने पर रहता या करने के लिए बहुत छोटा है
जीवन भी कम है उदास रहने के लिए बहुत कम है
life is to short to waste on hating other people.
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life is too short to care about what others think
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life is to short live with someone who is crazy about you
जीवन का आनंद ले के लिए कम है तो यह मजा आता है…
Last Update: 2021-06-29 Usage Frequency: 1 Quality: quality of life article pdf

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Survival Stories life article stories

123 On May 28, 2013, divers in the wreckage of the Jacson-4 were attempting a triage of the vessel, which 100 feet down off the coast of Nigeria after capsizing. What they didn’t expect to find was a survivor.
Maybe it’s hitting the slopes to take advantage of freshly fallen powder on a remote mountainside, exploring an underwater cave, or sailing the sea that’ll have you face unthinkable obstacles. From expanses of ocean, the crush of ice, the depths of oceans, and the unbelievable feeling of being absolutely alone, here are some of the most spectacular survival stories we’ve ever heard.
Wikimedia Commons Ralston will forever be known as the guy who cut his hand off to escape a climbing accident that left him trapped between two boulders. Ralston was climbing in Blue John Canyon in Utah alone. As he shimmied down a canyon, a boulder came loose, and trapped Ralston’s hand.
The insects in the jungle stopped short of eating her alive and maggots had infected her arm, but after nine days, she was able to find an encampment. She gave herself rudimentary first aid, including pouring gasoline on the maggot infestation. A few hours later, lumber workers found her, giving her first aid and taking her to a more inhabited area where she was airlifted to a hospital.
Royal Geographic Society Ernest Shackleton had braved the south pole once, and we was ready to face it head on again in 1914, setting out with a group of 28 men. They hoped to make it all the way across the continent, arriving to a waiting ship at the other side. Instead, they became hopelessly trapped in the ice as their ship, the Endurance, fell apart.
According to a site run by the U niversity of Alaska-Anchorage, Blackjack did not receive a hero’s welcome. Instead, she was criticized for not saving the life of her male crewmate, though the family “eventually vindicated her after meeting with her and issuing a statement that Blackjack had done everything possible to save their son’s life. ” Still, she spent the rest of her life in poverty before her death in 1983.
Realizing they were trapped, the boys took turns digging a 16 foot hole into the cave wall hoping to find a way out. They meditated to save energy and avoid thinking about foot. Then British divers who had set out from the cave’s entrance three hours prior happened upon the boys.
The boys, aged 11-16 and their coach, 25, waded into the waters and began exploring the cave. When a flash flood came, they pushed deeper in, eventually making their way to an elevated platform, 4 kilometers into the cave system. The flood filled the twisted cave system with water, trapping the boys for 17 days. For the first nine days, they had no food, and relied on dripping stalactites for water. But they didn’t sit and wait.
Her story was eventually told in the 2000 documentary Wings of Hope by director Werner Herzog, who had a seat booked on that very flight before cancelling at the last minute.
Getty Images In July 2018 Angela Hernandez was driving near Big Sur down Highway 1, headed to Southern California in her SUV when a small animal crossed the road. Hernandez swerved to miss it, and in doing so, shot her SUV off the road and off a cliff, tumbling down about 200 feet to a desolate, rocky beach.
As the boat began to sink, Callahan repeatedly dove back into the sinking ship to grab survival gear. With food and water for a few days, Callahan clambered into his 6-foot circular raft, adrift, 800 miles West of the Canaries and heading farther from them at every moment. Callahan fished with a spear gun and made water with a solar still. At day 14 he signaled to a passing ship, it kept on passing.
NASA To date, no living humans have been as far in space as the crew of Apollo 13 . The crew’s path took them 248,655 miles from Earth before swinging back down for a miraculous landing.
Three Images Getty Images If you’re lucky, you’ll never be in a position that forces you to tap into your survival instincts. But the truth of the matter is, you never know when an accident will put you in a life or death situation where time and critical decision making are of the essence.
But the crew never made it to the surface of the moon, their original destination. Instead, Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert, and Fred Hayse encountered a problem that could’ve killed them all: faulty wiring ignited an oxygen tank, blowing out part of the spacecraft.
Harrison Okene was the ship’s cook. He was in the latrine when the boat capsized, and tried to reach an emergency exit hatch but failed. The boat began to fill with water with Okene trapped inside. Eventually, he found himself trapped with a four square foot bubble of air.
Getty Images Alaska native Ada Blackjack was a member of the indigenous Iñupiat people. She was hired by Canadians Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Allan Crawford on an expedition to the Wrangel Islands, which are now considered Russian territory. The goal was to claim them in the name of Canada, and Blackjack was the seamstress and cook of the expedition.
Tragically, one former Thai Navy Seal died in the rescue effort.
She had a brain hemorrhage, fractured ribs, broken collar bone, ruptured blood vessels in both eyes, and a collapsed lung, but she didn’t die. When she came to, water lapped over her knees. She broke her window with a multitool, crawled out the window, swam to the beach, and passed out.
These are some of the wildest examples of grit and determination.
Getty Images After soccer practice in June 2018, 12 members of a Thai soccer team and their coach decided to explore the nearby Tham Luang cave, one of Thailand’s longest cave.
Survival Stories life article stories
Survival Stories life article stories
After three days, he had given up hope. Then he heard a knock. It was the hammer of the divers working on the surface of the ship. Eventually, diving gear was brought to him and he was brought to a decompression chamber, where he had to spend two days. He had been at depths that should have killed him in a situation that took the lives of everyone else on board. Unsurprisingly, he vowed never to go out to sea again.
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Getty Images After successfully sailing across the Atlantic solo in his 6.5 meter sloop, Callahan started the trip home in January of 1981. The storm around his boat one evening didn’t concern him, but the hole a whale or shark put in his boat’s hull in the middle of the night amid the storm surely did. life article stories

The arduous journey to the surface required each boy to wear a full-face diving mask, be tethered between two divers, and swim for hours through turns and exceedingly tight squeezes. Thanks to the efforts of Thai Navy Seals and the international dive community, all survived and were able to quickly return to a normal, healthy, life after the rescue.
When she came to, she had no shoes and was understandably banged up but began walking the shore for help. She used a hose from her car to collect dripping water from moss along the shore. She walked for days. Up above she could see cars pass by atop the cliff, but they couldn’t see her or hear her screams.
123 For 38 days, the Robertson family was lost at sea. Patriarch Dougal Robertson, a British dairy farmer, just wanted to take his family on a boat trip for the ” university of life ,” as his son called it. On January 27, 1971, Dougal, his wife, and their four children set out on a wooden schooner called the Lucette, heading to parts unknown.
The lunar module provided a safe haven for the astronauts in space, but the craft couldn’t survive atmospheric re-entry. The crew moved back into the damaged command module before successfully making it to the ground, all unharmed save a severely dehydrated Hayse.
No one knew he was there, and he only had a little bit of water and a little bit of food. It was up to him to rescue himself. He struggled for three days, before deciding to self-amputate in order to extricate himself. But after two days of trying various methods, he nearly gave up. At this point, he was out of water and surviving on his own urine.
Despite multiple hardships, all 28 men on the mission survived, though some of the dogs weren’t so lucky Not as fortunate was the ship waiting on the other side of Antartica, the Ross Sea Party, which experienced three deaths.
Exhausted, and after losing a third of his body weight, Callahan was finally spotted by some fisherman off the coast of Guadeloupe as birds and fish circled his raft, foraging the fish guts he tossed back into the sea. He’d been adrift for 76 days.
He was eventually discovered by a European family on a camp out, and six hours after his self-amputation, he was rescued by authorities. He was found just in time: Ralston was on the brink of death from blood loss. He survives today, still taking outdoor expeditions and climbing adventures when not giving speeches or having movies made about his life.
It wasn’t until a few hikers scouting the beach for fishing spots, stumbled across her wrecked Jeep and scoured the beach until they found Hernandez crumpled up sleeping on some rocks. They gave her water and called for help. Eventually rescuers used ropes to descend the cliff and evacuate Hernandez to a hospital, ending her 7-day ordeal.
After a month, he drifted out of shipping lanes. By day 50 he was covered in sores from the salt water, struggling with dehydration in the tropical waters, and struggling to patch a hole in his raft.
Blackjack survived there for two years, not an easy task considering the risk of polar bear attack. She learned to hunt seals and partly survived off their meat until she was finally rescued on August 28, 1923, almost two years after she’d been left on the island.
She was battered. She was bruised. Her collarbone was broken. But she was alive—the only survivor of the flight. And now, she found herself in the wilderness alone. Some candy was her only food, but she found a small stream. She waded downwater in it, able to keep herself hydrated at the same time.
Douglas, the eldest son, told the BBC his father had made few preparations for the trip, though he had been in the British merchant navy. For 17 months at sea, the family faired well, sailing from port-to-port and seeing the world. But on June 15, 1972, the family encountered a group of killer whales off the coast of the Galapagos Islands.
Surviving that long was only half the battle though. Thai Seals entered the cave to help and hang with the boys as rescuers planned how to extricate them safely. Over the course of a three-day mission, divers retrieved each player and their coach.
Eventually, supplies began to dwindle, and the men took to their lifeboats, floating to an island that took 14 days in bitter Antarctic Seas to reach. From there, they had to mount another expedition to South Georgia Island, the nearest inhabited island, nearly 1,000 miles from their original starting point.
Five members of the expedition were left on the island on September 16, 1921 as a territorial claim, but their rations soon ran low. Three members went off in search of help while Blackjack took care of an ailing crewmate, who later perished, leaving her alone on the island.
Wikimedia Commons Juliane Koepcke had two big survival stories to tell by the end of her ordeal. On Christmas Eve 1971, Koepcke flew on LANSA Flight 508 . The plane was struck by lightning. The plane began to disintegrate in midair, and Koepcke found herself still strapped to her seat—two miles above the Peruvian rain forest.
After 16 days, the raft was no longer usable, so the family their one inexperienced crew member fled to a dinghy. It was a 10 foot boat far over capacity, but they managed to cling on until they were discovered by Japanese fishermen on July 23, 1972.
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The whales attacked the boat, splintering it and severely damaging it. The ship was taking in water. All they had was a lifeboat and a small dinghy, and just six days worth of food. They survived on rainwater and hunted turtles, adrift at sea, hoping to ride Pacific currents to the middle of the ocean, which would then push them toward the Americas.
That is until an idea came to him on day six: he could amputate a portion of his own arm much easier if he could only break his radius and ulna. After an hour of work with a cheap multitool, he had amputated his hand successfully, and had to still get back to his vehicle, descending a 65 foot wall with one hand.
Using the lunar module as a lifeboat, the crew stretched the rations that remained. They had to make a day-and-a-half worth of food for two people last for four days among three people. why am i only attracted to psychopaths

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The Origin origin of life article pdf of Life American Scientist

Current research into this foundational question now centers on the fact that the chemical substrate of living systems is much more complex than that of simple physical systems that have been examined so far. One important new direction of research involves the development of small-molecule catalysts in increasingly complex cooperative networks. The hope is that when a full theory is available, we will see the formation of life as an inevitable outcome of basic thermodynamics, like the freezing of ice cubes or the formation of magnets.
In the analogy, the “problem” is the fact that the water begins in a state of high energy; the creation of the channel ”solves” this problem by allowing the water to move to a lower energy state. Furthermore, the dynamics of the system are such that once the channel is established, subsequent flow will reinforce and strengthen it. There are many such systems of channels in nature—the lightning bolt is an example, although in that case the forces at work are electrical, not gravitational. .
The next major advance came in the early 1980s, when Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman showed that some RNA molecules can act as enzyme-like catalysts. The frozen-accident argument was then replaced by a suggestive scenario in which something like RNA was assembled by chance, and was then able to fill twin roles as both enzyme and hereditary molecule in the runup to life. The RNA systems were then acted upon by natural selection, leading to greater molecular complexity and, eventually, something like modern life. Whereas most scientists believe, on the basis of Cech and Altman’s work, that life went through an early RNA-dominated phase , the “RNA First” scenario has again a quality of frozen accident. Between prebiological chemistry and RNA World, a large leap occurs, requiring that molecules appear having at least a familial resemblance to the complex molecules in the vials of Cech and Altman, for that is the assumption upon which the relevance of their findings to the origin of life depends.
At any given moment in a living cell, hundreds of reactions occur in which chemical precursors are converted into products. Nearly all of these reactions would not occur without the assistance of enzymes, proteins tuned by evolution to bind reactants with astonishing specificity, often in pairs, facilitate the reaction between the and release the projects. The reactions carried out by enzymes have a thermodynamic feature in common—the overall energy of the products is less than that of the reactants. Put another way, the flow of metabolic reactants is in the direction of equilibrium. Enzymes, like all catalysts, do not affect the position of equilibrium at all, they just help chemical species achieve equilibrium faster—often millions of times faster—than they would without the catalyst present. In cells, metabolic reactions occur in sequences called pathways: The products of the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in pathways are acted upon by other enzymes. Reactions for which the drop in energy is high are called irreversible. In the conditions found in cells, they run in the forward direction only. For many cellular reactions, like the horizontal reactions in the figure above, the change in energy for the reaction is near zero. If the product begins to pile up , the reaction pair will achieve equilibrium by running in the reverse direction until there is again an equilibrium balance between the reaction and product. The change in the concentrations of reactant may be accompanied by increased traffic into branching reactions. After four billion years of evolutionary tinkering, the cell has conjured the sprawling, winding sequence of reactions found in modern cells, captured in the famous metabolic map steadily refined by Donald Nicholson of Leeds University since 1961 and found on laboratory walls everywhere. How did this astounding system come into being? Buried in this maze is a circular pathway of reactions, often called the hub of metabolism, that the authors believe may be the foundations of life itself—the place where it all started.
Figure 4. The famous metabolic map on page 209 was recently reworked to feature metabolism of chemoautotrophs—organisms that derive energy from inorganic sources and synthesize all necessary compounds from CO 2 . Arraying the reactions in concentric rings reveals a short route to essential biological products.
On the theoretical side, we have to start with the realization that if we apply standard equilibrium thermodynamics to living systems, we arrive at something of a paradox. Living systems possess low entropy, which makes them very improbable from the equilibrium thermodynamic viewpoint. From the point of view of theoretical physics, the basic problem is that classical thermodynamics has only been well developed for systems in equilibrium—systems that do not change over time—or that change only by moving through successive, infinitesimally different equilibrium states. What is needed, therefore, is an extension of ordinary thermodynamics so that it can apply to systems maintained far from equilibrium by the flow of energy.
Figure 2. RNA World has been the prevailing theory for the origin of life since the 1980s. The emergence of a self-replicating catalytic molecule accounts for signature capabilities of living systems, but it doesn’t explain how the protobiological molecule itself arose. Metabolism First seeks the answer in primitive reaction networks that generate their own constituents, offering a substrate for chemical selection and a launchpad for life.
For real hills, we understand not only that the water will flow downward but also many things about how it will do so. Molecules of water will not each flow down a random path. Instead the flowing water will cut a channel in the hillside. In fact, the flow of water is at once constructing a channel and contributing to the collapse of the energy imbalance that drives the entire process. In addition, if we look at this process in detail, we see that what really matters is the configuration of the earth near the top of the hill, for it is there that the channeling process starts. This part of the analogy turns out to be particularly appropriate when we consider early chemical reactions.
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Figure 3. The reactions and molecules of the citric acid cycle are universal in modern organisms. However, in many microbial species, the cycle runs in reverse. Instead of oxidizing the fuel molecule acetate and releasing CO 2 as waste, the reverse cycle incorporates CO 2 in organic molecules by exploiting the electron-transfer potential of geologically produced molecules such as H 2 . A reductive cycle could have served as the foundation for primordial biosynthesis.
In the metabolic maps of all modern organisms, the small molecules and reactions of the citric acid cycle are the starting point of every biosynthetic pathway—all roads lead from the citric acid cycle. However, in some organisms the reactions do not form a closed—cyclic—reaction sequence. For that reason, even among researchers convinced that these reactions are vestiges of the first metabolism, debate remains over whether the very first metabolic footpath was a cycle. However, because only cycles can act as self-amplifying channels, and because in organisms not running the closed cycle, sophisticated compensating adaptations are required, we consider a primordial reductive citric acid cycle the most likely route from geochemistry to life—the rivulet that formed at the top of the energy hill, through which the pond of energy began its thermodynamic escape. We then ask how, from this simple beginning, could the complexity we see in the modern cell arise. The first thing to notice is that, taken by itself, the cycle captures only part of the energy in the carbon dioxide and hydrogen that constitute its input. In transforming the carbon dioxide to acetate, for example, the cycle harvests only about a third of the energy available in the electrons. Even in the deep core of metabolism, however, we do not see the cycle in isolation. Its lowest-energy molecule, acetate, is the starting point for other pathways that make the essential oils used in cell membranes, harvesting another third of the electron energy. Further reactions, such as those that generate methane, can capture the remaining available energy, though methane is a gas and therefore a waste product, unlike the earlier molecules in the pathway, which are constituents of biomass.
We argue that the appearance of life on our planet followed the creation of just such a channel, except that it was a channel in a chemical rather than a geological landscape. In the abiotic world of the early Earth, likely in a chemically excited environment, reservoirs of energy accumulated. In effect, electrons were pumped up chemical hills. Like the water in our analogy, those electrons possessed stored energy. The “problem” was how to release it. In the words of Albert Szent-Gyorgi: “Life is nothing but an electron looking for a place to rest.”
The role of the citric acid cycle as a foundation for complexity applies not only to subsequent adaptation by organisms under selection; it can be seen even within the chemical structure of the metabolic core itself. A particularly powerful way to make this point is to rework the schematic chart of current metabolism first developed by Nicholson. The original Nicholson chart was developed to elaborate human metabolism and was gradually expanded to incorporate the complex webs of chemistry on which humans depend. Recently, one of us and Vijay Srinivasan used evidence from microbiology to distill the Nicholson chart, with its complex modules and domains of metabolism, down to a minimal common core, the necessary and sufficient network of reactions to make a living system. Within this core chart, which will be published soon, we arrayed pathways as layers built around citric acid cycle precursors. A fragment of that detailed chart is shown in Figure 4. The innermost layer consists of molecules that can be built from cycle intermediates with one chemical reaction, the next layer consists of those that can be built with two reactions, and so on. .
Image at left courtesy of NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team . Image at top right courtesy of Gaume, R., et al. 1995. Astrophysics Journal 449:663, reprinted by permission of the American Astronomical Society. Illustration at bottom right by Barbara Aulicino.
The new approach requires that we adopt new ways of looking at two important fields of science. As we will see below, we will have to adjust our view of both cellular biochemistry and thermodynamics. Before we talk about these new ideas, however, it will be useful to place them in context by outlining a little of the history of research on the origin of life.
Once natural selection began, systems with slightly different chemistry would appear on the scene through random accident. For example, acetate can be used in two ways to make oily molecules, and the major domains of life divide, in part, according to which class they make and how they use them. Methane production purely for energetic purposes may have been primordial, or it may have been coupled to metabolism in a later, more complicated age .
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In the same way, we argue, the current complexity of life should be understood as the result of a multistep process, beginning with the catalytic chemistry of small molecules acting in simple networks—networks still preserved in the depths of metabolism—elaborating these reaction sequences through processes of simple chemical selection, and only later taking on the aspects of cellularization and organismal individuality that make possible the Darwinian selection that biologists see today. Our task as origin-of-life researchers is to look at the modern highways and see what they reveal about the original foot trails.

Assuming the experimental and theoretical programs outlined above work out well, our picture of life as a robust, inevitable outcome of certain geochemical processes will be on firm footing. Who knows? Maybe then someone will write a book titled Necessity, Not Chance.
For example, carbon dioxide and hydrogen molecules are produced copiously in ordinary geochemical environments such as deep sea vents, creating a situation analogous to the water on the hill. The energy of this system can be lowered if the electrons in the hydrogen ”roll down the hill” by combining with the atoms of carbon dioxide in a chemical reaction that produces water and acetate . In the abiotic world, however, this particular reaction takes place so slowly that the electrons in the hydrogen molecles find themselves effectively stranded at the top of the energy hill.
Here’s an analogy that will provide an outline for the argument we make: Consider the requirements of the U.S. Interstate highway system. The system includes an enormously complex network of roads; major infrastructure devoted to extracting oil from the Earth, refining oil into gasoline and distributing gasoline along the highways, a major industry devoted to producing automobiles; and so on. If we wanted to explain this system in all of its complexity, we would not ask whether cars led to roads or roads led to cars, nor would we suspect that the entire system had been created from scratch as a giant public works project. It would be more productive to consider the state of transport in preindustrial America and ask how the primitive foot trails that must certainly have existed had developed into wagon roads, then paved roads and so on. By following this evolutionary line of argument, we would eventually account for the present system in all its complexity without needing recourse to highly improbable chance events.
The important pattern to appreciate is that the primordial cycle provides the stability and starting materials that make an age of selection possible. We think it was at the transition to this stage that geochemistry began to take on the features of replication and selection recognized by Darwin as distinctive of life. After such an age has begun, it can maintain the complexity and diversity needed to explore for refinements—in efficiency, in adaptation to the geological environment or in specialized division of labor within communal systems. The same pattern repeated itself when the environment was changed by the accumulation of a destructive toxin—oxygen—that was produced by primordial organisms as a waste product. As they adapted, organisms did not abandon the reductive citric acid cycle, which we believe was the unique foundation for biosynthesis. Instead they acquired the ability to run the cycle in reverse, extracting energy from the breakdown of molecules similar to those the cycle formerly produced.
We know how life, once it began, was able to proliferate and diversify until it filled every niche on the planet. Yet one of the most obvious big questions—how did life arise from inorganic matter?—remains a great unknown.
Our progress on this question has been impeded by a formidable cognitive barrier. Because we perceive a deep gap when we think about the difference between inorganic matter and life, we feel that nature must have made a big leap to cross that gap. This point of view has led to searches for ways large and complex molecules could have formed early in Earth’s history, a daunting task. The essential problem is that in modern living systems, chemical reactions in cells are mediated by protein catalysts called enzymes. The information encoded in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA is required to make the proteins; yet the proteins are required to make the nucleic acids. Furthermore, both proteins and nucleic acids are large molecules consisting of strings of small component molecules whose synthesis is supervised by proteins and nucleic acids. We have two chickens, two eggs, and no answer to the old problem of which came first.
From this layered structure we believe we can see the chemical cascade that comprised the earliest steps in the evolution of life.
Figure 5. PRIMOS—the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey—has focused on Sagittarius B2, a cloud near the center of our galaxy . The radio footprints of many organic molecules have been detected there . Where aqueous carbon chemistry occurs, is metabolism far behind?
Adherents have come to call the other possibility “Metabolism First” . In our version of Metabolism First, the earliest steps toward life required neither DNA nor RNA, and may not even have involved spatial compartments like cells; origin of life article pdf the earliest reactions could have occurred in the voids of porous rock, perhaps filled with organic gels deposited as suggested in the Oparin-Haldane model. We believe this early version of metabolism consisted of a series of simple chemical reactions running without the aid of complex enzymes, via the catalytic action of networks of small molecules, perhaps aided by naturally occurring minerals. If the network generated its own constituents—if it was recursive—it could serve as the core of a self-amplifying chemical system subject to selection. We propose that such a system arose and that much of that early core remains as the universal part of modern biochemistry, the reaction sequences shared by all living beings. Further elaborations would have been added to it as cells formed and came under RNA control, and as organisms specialized as participants in more complex ecosystems.
Inserting RNA molecules into an RNA First scenario without explaining how they got there seems to us an inadequate foundation for an origin theory. The RNA molecule is too complex, requiring assembly first of the monomeric constituents of RNA, then assembly of strings of monomers into polymers. As a random event without a highly structured chemical context, this sequence has a forbiddingly low probability and the process lacks a plausible chemical explanation, despite considerable effort to supply one. We find it more natural to infer that by the time complex RNA was possible, life was already well on the road to complexity. We believe further that we can see the primordial chemical architecture preserved in the universal metabolic chemistry we observe today.
If this notion turns out to be true, it will have important implications for a deep philosophical question: whether we should understand the history of life in terms of the working out of predictable physical principles or of the agency of chance. We are, in fact, arguing that life will appear on any planet that reproduces the environmental and geological conditions that appeared on the early Earth, and that it will appear in order to solve precisely the sort of ”stranded electron” problem discussed above. The currently popular view that complex life was something of a frozen accident was set forth in Jacques Monod’s classic book Chance and Necessity . We, of course, are arguing the opposite, if only for a significant part of basic chemical architecture. It has not escaped our notice that the mechanism we are postulating immediately suggests that life is widespread in the universe, and can be expected to develop on any planet whose chemistry resembles that of the early Earth.
The cycle can also operate in the opposite direction, taking in energy and building up larger molecules from smaller ones. This is called the reductive mode of the cycle. If an organism has access to high-energy electrons like those produced by geochemical processes, in fact, it can thrive with the cycle exclusively in the reductive mode, having no use for the oxidative mode at all. One way to think about the two modes of the cycle is this: In the oxidative mode, the input is an organic molecule, and the output is chemical energy, carbon dioxide and water. In the reductive mode, the input is chemical energy, carbon dioxide and water, and the output is a more complex molecule.
The Origin origin of life article pdf of Life American Scientist
The Origin origin of life article pdf of Life American Scientist
At the very core of metabolism—the starting point for the synthetic pathways of all biomolecules—is a relatively simple set of reactions known as the citric acid cycle . The cycle involves eight molecules, each a carboxylic acid . In most present-day life forms on Earth, the citric acid cycle operates to break organic molecules down into carbon dioxide and water, using oxygen to produce energy for the cell—in effect, ”burning” those molecules as fuel. . When the cycle operates in this way, we say that it is in its oxidative mode.
This must have been the way the cycle operated on the early Earth, because molecular oxygen was not available primordially to support the oxidative mode, and because we see it operating this way today in some anaerobic organisms that seem to have preserved this aspect of the biochemistry of their ancestors. In the reductive mode, the cycle provides a way for high-energy electrons to flow down the chemical hill. It is similar to the acetate reaction shown earlier, which is thermodynamically feasible but very slow, but with the addition of a network of small molecules—the reductive citric acid cycle—acting to mediate and speed up the reaction. On biochemical and thermodynamic grounds, then, the reductive citric acid cycle would be a good candidate for the threshold of early life—the point where the pond of high-potential water is breached and the downhill pathway is etched out. The slow uncatalyzed conversion of carbon dioxide and hydrogen into acetate and water, shown earlier, occurs efficiently as the energy and reactants enter a primordial network of reactions like the modern-day reductive citric acid cycle.
Networks of synthetic pathways that are recursive and self-catalyzing are widely known in organic chemistry, but they are notorious for generating a mass of side products, which may disrupt the reaction system or simply dilute the reactants, preventing them from accumulating within a pathway. The important feature necessary for chemical selection in such a network, which remains to be demonstrated, is feedback-driven self-pruning of side reactions, resulting in a limited suite of pathways capable of concentrating reagents as metabolism does. The search for such self-pruning is one of the most actively pursued research fronts in Metabolism First research.
Scientists called this scenario the Oparin-Haldane conjecture, but it was given a provocative nickname that endures in the popular consciousness—Primordial Soup.
Figure 1. Origin-of-life studies became an experimental science with the Miller-Urey experiment, which produced organic molecules in a flask from components thought to be present in the paleogeological atmosphere—homemade primordial soup. But how did soup ingredients become life? A recent model called Metabolism First proposes that life didn’t climb over a thermodynamic barrier, it fell into place according to knowable laws of chemistry and thermodynamics.
On the experimental side, some researchers, such as George Cody at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., are trying to work out the basic rules of organic chemistry for exotic environments that might have been relevant to the origin of life. Cody, for example, has worked on unraveling organic interactions at the kinds of temperatures and pressures that obtain at deep ocean vents. Mike Russell at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, is building a large chamber to model the geochemistry of those environments. Shelley Copley at the University of Colorado at Boulder has been sorting out the intermediate chemistry leading to the current nucleic acid–protein system of genetic coding, with an eye toward resolving the chicken-and-egg problem. These experiments represent a major paradigm shift from the top-down control envisioned in RNA World scenarios. Rather than supposing that a few large RNA molecules control the adaptation of a passive small-molecule reaction network, Copley supposes that whole networks of intermediate molecules support each other on the path toward complexity. In this experimental setting, networks of small and randomly synthesized amino acids and single RNA units aid each others’ formation, assembly into strings and evolution of catalytic capacity. Both types of molecules grow long together. Complexity, adaptation and control are distributed in such networks, rather than concentrated in one molecular species or reaction type. Distributed control is likely to be a central paradigm in the development of Metabolism First as a viable theory. We eagerly anticipate more experimental efforts like these to explore the many facets of small-molecule system organization.
The essential legacy of the Primordial Soup was twofold: It simplified the notion of the origin of life to a single pivotal event, and then it proposed that that event—the step that occurred after the molecules were made—was a result of chance. In the standard language, life is to be seen, in the end, as a “frozen accident.” In this view, many fundamental details about the structure of life are not amenable to explanation. The architecture of life is just one of those things. Although many modern theories are less extreme than this, frozen-accident thinking still influences what some of us ask about the origin of life and how we prioritize our experiments.
In this article we present a view gaining attention in the origin-of-life community that takes the question out of the hatchery and places it squarely in the realm of accessible, plausible chemistry. As we see it, the early steps on the way to life are an inevitable, incremental result of the operation of the laws of chemistry and physics operating under the conditions that existed on the early Earth, a result that can be understood in terms of known laws of nature. As such, the early stages in the emergence of life are no more surprising, no more accidental, than water flowing downhill.
The view of life originating as a network of simple chemical reactions will require a lot of testing before it is adopted by the scientific community. We identify two areas where research is being pursued: the development of the theory of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and the experimental pursuit of those first nonenzymatic chemical reactions that led to modern life.
The compelling feature of RNA World is that a primordial molecule provided both catalytic power and the ability to propagate its chemical identity over generations. As the catalytic versatility of these primordial RNA molecules increased due to random variation and selection, metabolic complexity began to emerge. From that stage, RNA had roles in both control of metabolism and continuity across generations, as it does today. Depending on which function one prefers to emphasize, these overall models have been called “Control First” or “Genetics First.” In either case, the proliferation of metabolism depended on RNA being there first.
The primordial core chart is simpler than the elaborate chart made by combining organisms today, but it is not much simpler biosynthetically. It contains the major modules for sugars, oils and amino and nucleic acids, and we have proposed that it was—at least in broad outline—the agency of chemical selection in an era that preceded natural selection on distinguishable organisms.
We note that there is a fundamental difference between the way chemical reaction systems could have operated before the appearance of the first self-replicating molecules and the way they operate now that self-replicating systems have developed. In the beginning, the only potential source of order would have been networks of chemical reactions operating according to the laws of chemistry and physics. After molecules appeared that could replicate more or less independently, such as RNA, however, evolution could have proceeded according to the rules of natural selection, with the success of subsequent generations dependent on adaptive properties. Exactly when and how this transition occurred remains an open question debated by researchers, but the fact that it did occur is plain. Another way of saying this is that before the appearance of the first self-replicating molecules or assemblages of molecules , what mattered was the persistence of the chemical network; after such a system appeared, natural selection took on its more familiar form of selection among rival reproducing “individuals.”
The ubiquity of simple molecules suggested an appealing scenario that had a profound effect on the way investigators approached the origin of life throughout the last half of the 20th century. The scenario went like this: After the Earth cooled enough to allow oceans to form, the Miller-Urey process or something like it produced a rain of organic matter. In a relatively short time, the ocean became a broth of these molecules, and given enough time, the right combination of molecules came together by pure chance to form a replicating entity of some kind that evolved into modern life.
As the frontiers of knowledge have advanced, scientists have resolved one creation question after another. We now have a pretty good understanding of the origin of the Sun and the Earth, and cosmologists can take us to within a fraction of a second of the beginning of the universe itself.
Most historians would say that the modern era of experimental research in origin-of-life studies began in a basement laboratory in the chemistry department of the University of Chicago in 1953. Harold Urey, a Nobel laureate in chemistry, and Stanley Miller, then a graduate student, put together a tabletop apparatus designed to look at the kinds of chemical processes that might have occurred on the planet soon after its birth. They showed that organic molecules could be created from inorganic materials by natural environmental conditions such as acidic solution, heat and electrical discharge , without the mediation of enzymes. This finding triggered a wave of new thinking about both the origin and nature of life.
In this example, the problem that is solved by the presence of life is getting energized electrons back down the chemical hill. This is accomplished by the establishment of a sequence of biochemical channels, each contributing to the whole. . The reactions that create those channels would involve simple chemical transactions between small organic molecules.
A case is made for the descent of electrons
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In a larger sense, however, the future of the experimental program associated with the Metabolism First philosophy is tied to the development of the appropriate theory, guided by experimental results. The hope is that the interplay of theory and experiment, so familiar to historians of science, will produce a theory that illuminates the physical principles that led to the development of life and, hence, give us the ability to re-create life in our laboratories.
Image courtesy of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.
How can we translate these sorts of general arguments into a reasonable scenario for the appearance of the first living thing? One way would be to look closely at the metabolic chart shown earlier, the diagram that maps the basic chemical reactions in all living systems.
Since 1953, we have found many of the same simple organic molecules in meteorites, comets and even interstellar gas clouds. Far from being special, then, the simplest of the molecules we find in living systems—life’s building blocks—seem to be quite common in nature. To many, the real question was how these basic building blocks got put together into living systems, and, equally important, how the molecules that led to modern life were selected out of the messy molecular milieu in which they arose.
The very robustness of modern life makes such questions difficult, because the metabolism that we see today seems to be one on which life has converged, and around which it reorganizes after historical shocks such as the oxygenation of the atmosphere at the beginning of the paleoproterozoic era, the emergence of multicellularity, dramatic climate changes that have reshaped environments and so on. To avoid confusing this convergent form with one toward which evolution was “directed,” we focus instead on the nonliving world that preceded life and ask “what was wrong” with such a world, which created the first steps toward life as a departure. In other words, what was the “problem” that a lifeless earth “solved” by the emergence of life?
One promising approach was first suggested by E. T. Jaynes in the mid-20th century. He recognized that information is associated not just with states but with whole histories of change, which can include channel flows of the sort we have been discussing. Technically, one cannot talk about the entropy “of a state” if the state depends for its context on a process of change; only the entropy of the whole process is expected to be maximized. To return to our pond on the hill, there is not a separate entropy of the pond, except as an approximation. Rather, there is an entropy of paths of change that include pond, channel, construction and relaxation. When such a formulation is analyzed for a simple system, the establishment of a channel can be seen as a phase transition, similar to the freezing of an ice cube or, to use a more precise mathematical analogy, the formation of a magnet from molten iron. . The full entropy of the process will be maximized in the system, even though the approximate entropy associated with the “state” of the channel may not be, thereby eliminating the paradox.
Another analogy will illustrate how this question should be understood. Imagine a large pond of water sitting on top of a hill. article on life skills in hindi